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Assessment Resource Centre (ARC)

  1. Stage 2
  2. Mathematics
  3. Activities
  4. Is it fair?
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Is it fair?

Grade Work Samples
End of Stage 2 (end of Year 4)
Grade A Ashley  
Grade C Jamie   Lou  
Grade D Rania  
Grade E Alex   Lindsay  
New Work Samples

Foundation Statement strands

The following strands are covered in this activity:

Working Mathematically, Number

Description of activity

Students work in teams to predict possible outcomes in an experimental context.

  1. The class is organised into four teams. Each team is allocated a colour name: red, blue, green or yellow.
  2. The teacher has a bag containing 1 yellow, 10 red, 5 blue, and 4 green counters. Students are told that there are twenty counters and that each colour is represented in the bag. The number of each coloured counter is not revealed to the students.
  3. The teacher draws a counter from the bag and a point is given to the team with the corresponding colour.
  4. The counter is then returned to the bag and the process is repeated for twenty draws.
  5. Students are then asked as individuals, to write about
    • their prediction of the composition of coloured counters in the bag
    • the reasons for their prediction
    • whether the game is fair.

The suggested time allocation for this activity is 60 minutes.

Suggested materials

10 red counters, 5 blue counters, 4 green counters, 1 yellow counter, a cloth bag, paper, pens.

Prior learning

Students have encountered a variety of chance concepts through games – including randomness, prediction and likelihood. They are familiar with the language of chance.

Board of Studies NSW, Mathematics K–6 Syllabus, p 69
Board of Studies NSW, Mathematics K–6 Sample Units of Work, p 104


Chance (NS2.5)
Describes and compares chance events in social and experimental contexts
Applying Strategies (WMS 2.2)
Selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology, to solve problems
Communicating (WMS2.3)
Uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas
Reasoning (WMS2.4)
Checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used
Reflecting (WMS2.5)
Links mathematical ideas and makes connections with, and generalisations about, existing knowledge and understanding in relation to Stage 2 content

Criteria for assessing learning

Students will be assessed on their ability to:

  • describe chance events in an experimental context
  • use appropriate mental or written strategies to solve problems
  • communicate mathematical ideas and reasoning using appropriate terminology


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